时间:2015-05-14   作者:   来源: 字号:T | T


   1. Titi Monkeys Use Sentence-Like Order.Titi monkey-talk has just been deciphered, with researchers now comparing the communication of these small primates to those of humans. The study, published in the latest issue of Biology Letters, notes that titi alarm calls specify the type of predator, such as caracara (predatory bird) or oncilla (mammalianhunter). The calls also mention where the predator is located, such as in flight or stalking on the ground.


  The calls are emit in an orderly sequence, similar to how humans construct sentences. Lead author Cristiane Casar of the University of St. Andrews and her colleagues report it's “the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat”.


  2. Dolphins name themselves withsignature whistle that include other information -- such as sex, age,mating receptivity and health status. They broadcast the names when lonely for their buddies.


  Researcher Stephanie King of the University of St. Andrews Sea Mammal Research Unit told Discovery News, “Animals produced copies when they were separated from a close associate and this supports our belief that dolphins copy another animal’s signature whistle when they want to reunite with that specific individual.”


  3. Gorilla in the wild have their own detailed ways of communicating via calls, gestures,handclap and more. In captivity, gorillas can be trained to interact with humans using sign language.


  A gorilla named Koko, according to The Gorilla Foundation, has “a sign language vocabulary of over 1,000 words, which she uses in complex statements and questions. Most of these signs are standard American Sign Language (ASL), but some are natural gestures (intrinsic to gorillas), some are invented (untaught) and some ASL signs are slightly modified by Koko to form what we call Gorilla Sign Language (GSL).”


  4. An Asian elephant male named Koshik can imitate human speech, according to Tecumseh Fitch of the University of Vienna and colleagues. Fitch told Discovery News that Koshik’s vocabulary so far consists of five words: annyong (hello), anja (sit down), aniya (no), nuo (lie down), and choah (good).


  “Some of the words were commands that Koshik learned to perform, such as ‘lie down’ and ‘sit down,’ or were given as feedback, and we have every reason to believe he understands the meaning of these words,” Fitch said.


  5. Chimpanzee communication includes a mixture of passionate gestures, vocalizations and even sign language, which are all used to get their points across with each other. The gestures frequently happen in sequence so, similar to titi monkey alarm calls, come to mirror human sentence structures.


  “There istremendous overlap in human and chimpanzee gestures,” Mary Lee AbshireJensvold, associate director of the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute, told Discovery News. “Many gestures that you see in chimpanzee play, such asslaps, tickles, pokes, blocks and kicks, are ones that you would see in human play. Imagine play wrestling between two humans, and you’ve imagined a scene with two chimpanzees playing.”